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"
C'è una cosa che si chiama pressione sanguigna, Georg. In situazioni estreme può aumentare fortemente e all'improvviso. Ma non lasciare che questo ti trattenga dal fare grandi esperienze o provare impressioni forti, non è uno stato affatto pericoloso

Jostein Gaarder
"
 
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CS - un nuovo sistema di Signal Reporting
Di Admin (del 03/02/2012 @ 11:05:32, in Radio, linkato 6537 volte)

Il 6 giugno 2011, Bruce Prior N7RR, in un post indirizzato al gruppo yahoo AT_Sprint propose un nuovo metodo di Signal Reporting denominato CS dalle iniziali delle parole inglesi Copyability and Strength.Il testo integrale del post potete trovarlo qui.

lo scopo del nuovo sistema proposto e' nelle intenzioni dell'autore quello di fornire un sistema realistico e facilmente implementabile di report, ritenendo l'autore che il classico sistema RST non favorisca l'OM nel fornire dati realistici al corrispondente.

Il sistema CS sostituisce la soggettivita' della scala di valori R  con una piu' facilmente comprensibile scala di valori C basati sulla percentuale di messaggio ricevuto. In questa scala N significa "segnale non recuperabile" , 0 ricevibile ma non comprensibile, 1-9 comprensibile dal 10 al 90%, G segnale al 100% comprensibile ma non perfetto, P segnale perfetto al 100% o segnale senza rumore in FM. Il valore C "strizza l'occhio" anche ai nuovi sistemi digitali nei quali possono presentarsi segnali che, pur al di sotto del livello di rumore  per l'orecchio umano, possono essere comunque comprensibili in varia percentuale sullo schermo di un computer.

Quando la scala RST e' stata ideata, agli inizi del XX secolo, gli apparecchi radioamatoriali non disponevano di un S-meter e la scala S venne espressa in una serie di valori relativi da 1 a 9 della forza del segnale. Attualmente, i radioamatori, disponendo di un S-meter, riportano sovente la forza del segnale in dB sopre S-9. Questa utile pratica e' stata fatta propria dal sistema CS. Il dato S in questo sitema assume valori da 0 a 15 forniti in numerazione esadecimale ( quindi da 0 a F) secondo il seguente schema: 0 nessuna lettura dello S-meter, 1-9 lettura da S-1 a S-9, A B C D E F indicano rispettivamente 10 20 30 40 50 e 60 dB sopra S-9. Per fare un esempio la comune espressione "10 sopra 9" diventa semplicemente "A". se il report C e' N non e' richiesto il report S.

Nel sistema RST  il T (tone) espresso in 9 livelli indicava originariamente la presenza di componente alternata di rete nei segnali trasmessi. Oggi e' molto raro avere componenti AC nei segnali CW. Il report T viene normalmente omesso nelle trasmissioni in fonia. Il nuovo sistemam proposto fa a meno del report T sostituendolo con un un valore opzionale di qualita'  R (Readability) nelle trasmissioni Morse, fonia e digitali. In questo  contesto i valori ammessi sono: X qualita' eccellente, R ripple di alternata nella trasmissione, C cinguettii (chirps) o code durante la manipolazione e/o nelle pause, K key clics o altri transienti di manipolazione, O over-modulazione o over-deviazione in fonia o in modi digitali. Normalmente il sistema CS necessita di soli due caratteri per tutti i modi, ma il suffisso X puo' essere aggiunto per enfatizzare la ottima qualita' del segnale ricevuto.

Compresibilita' e forza del segnale sono cose molto differenti. talvolta segnali di bassa forza possono essere perfettamente comprensibili specialmente nell'utilizzo di modi digitali. In condizioni operative difficili anche un segnale S9 o A puo' non essere comprensibile al 100%. Nel sistema CS il valore P nel report di compresibilita e' abbastanza comune mentre il valore F nel report della forza sara' veramente raro.

 Considerando  che il sistema CS risulta succinto e rispondente alle reali condizioni operative, l'ideatore Bruce Prior N7RR spera che esso diventi di routine nei contatti radioamatoriali.

Di seguito riporto le scale del sistema CS secondo le ultime indicazione dell'autore:

The  CS  or  copyability and  strength  signal  reporting  System

 

C   or  Copyability  Scale

 N  =  no  discernible signal (originariamente proposta X)

0  =  discernible but not copiable

1  =  10% copy

2  =  20% copy

3  =  30% copy

4  =  40% copy

5  =  50% copy

6  =  60% copy

7  =  70% copy

8  =  80% copy

9  =  90% copy

(D  =  100% copy with Difficulty (rimossa?))

(M  =  100% copy with Minor difficulty (rimossa?))

P  =  Perfect armchair 100% copy or full-quieting on FM

Signal  Strength  or  S-Meter  Scale

 0  =  no S-meter reading

1  =  S-1

2  =  S-2

3  =  S-3

4  =  S-4

5  =  S-5

6  =  S-6

7  =  S-7

8  =  S-8

9  =  S-9

A  =  1 to 10 dB over S-9

B  =  11 to 20 dB over S-9

C  =  21 to 30 dB over S-9

D  =  31 to 40 dB over S-9

E  =  41 to 50 dB over S-9

F  =  more than 50 dB over S-9

 

Optional  Suffixes

X  =  characteristic steadiness of crystal (Xtal) control

R  =  AC Ripple or buzz in transmission

C  =  Chirp or tail on make and/or break

K  =  key clicks or other keying transients

(U  =  Undermodulation or Underdeviation in phone or digital modes (rimossa?))

O  =  Overmodulation or Overdeviation in phone or digital modes

Personalmente a me sembra interessante e comincero' ad usarlo.

Vi invito a dire la vostra su questo sistema nel topic che ho aperto nel forum della sezione ARI di Civitavecchia. Il forun e' raggiungibile a questo link. nella sezione HF-Generale.

Spero di essere stato utile

73 de iw0dvv Mariano 

 

 

 

 

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PropagationStats

Radio blackouts are graded on a scale of R1 to R5 as follows: Radio Blackouts Descriptor R5 Extreme R4 Severe R3 Strong R2 Moderate R1 Minor Solar flux is a measurement of the intensity of solar radio emissions with a wavelength of 10.7 cm (a frequency of about 2800 MHz). The value broadcast is in solar flux units that range from a theoretical minimum of about 50 to numbers larger than 300. The A and K indices are a measurement of the behavior of the magnetic field in and around the earth. The K index uses a scale from 0 to 9 to measure the change in the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field.

 Add PropagationStats to your ham radio site.

 

Cose da ascoltare

Famoso discorso di Marconi
Discorso in Italiano
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Trasmissione morse operata da Marconi

Cose da leggere


Da qui potete scaricare il libro di Bryce K. Anderson, K7UA -  The new DXre's Handbook

Da qui potete scaricare il manuale operativo de I4CQO,che illustra le procedure di trasmissione per il Servizio dei Radioamatori, tratto dai manuali internazionali della ITU e IARU e condensato in appena 84 pagine. - Manuale procedure di trasmissione de I4CQO


Cose da guardare

Voci senza confini- Documentario Opus Film 1962 di Giulio briani  Prezioso documentario storico del 1962 su cosa sono i radiamatori, direttamente dall'archivio dell'Istituto Luce

Divertentissima animazione di Paperino alle prese con una ricetta culinaria trasmessa per radio



Il Discorso del Re  film del 2010 diretto da Tom Hooper. Interpretato da Colin Firth, Geoffrey Rush, Helena Bonham Carter e Guy Pearce, il film ruota attorno ai problemi di balbuzie di Re Giorgio VI e al rapporto con il logopedista che lo ha in cura. Re Giorgio si trova ad affrontare a viso aperto la sua difficoltŕ perché questa gli si presenta davanti senza offrirgli nessuna via di fuga: deve fare il Re e deve parlare alla radio. L’arrivo della radio ha infatti rivoluzionato il mondo, e la Corona inglese non puň non stare al passo con i tempi, dialogando direttamente con i propri sudditi… Re Giorgio ha bisogno di una voce e allora ecco che avviene il cambiamento.
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